Management of the unstable shoulder

The shoulder is the most commonly dislocated joint in the human body. The incidence of shoulder dislocation is increasing. Recurrence is common and occurs in as many as 67% of cases. Patients often mention a painful, weak arm and a shoulder that readily dislocates with trivial movements.

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The aim of this review is to provide a simple framework for the clinical assessment, investigation, and treatment of the unstable shoulder for non-specialists and to highlight key patient groups that benefit from early specialist input.

Diagnosis and treatment of cancer using genomics

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The field of cancer diagnostics is in constant flux as a result of the rapid discovery of new genes associated with cancer, improvements in laboratory techniques for identifying disease causing events, and novel analytic methods that enable the integration of many different types of data. These advances have helped in the identification of novel, informative biomarkers

No blood pressure lowering agents prolong survival in diabetes and kidney disease, review shows

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No blood pressure lowering agents used either alone or in combination prolong survival in adults with diabetes and kidney disease, a meta-analysis published in the Lancet has found.

Researchers analysed 157 studies comparing blood pressure lowering agents in a total of 43 256 patients with diabetic kidney disease, mostly type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

Use of coloured overlays and lenses are unlikely to help children with dyslexia, study finds

Vision problems are rare in dyslexic children, and most have perfect eyesight, a large UK population based study has found.

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The study’s findings, published in Pediatrics on 25 May, reinforced the argument that coloured overlays and lenses are unlikely to help with reading difficulties in children with dyslexia. Around 375 000 UK children have dyslexia, and the use of coloured overlays and lenses by such children is common in educational establishments. Parents can spend hundreds of pounds on them, but their effectiveness remains uncertain

Identifying and managing common childhood language and speech impairments

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Learning to speak is one of life’s most important accomplishments. Language, usually acquired so effortlessly, underpins every child’s learning and ability to interact with others and to establish relationships.

The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the current information on language and speech impairments to help general practitioners, universal well child services, and paediatricians to identify the most common problems, understand their clinical course, decide when to refer and for what services, and understand what improvements can be expected.